Indonesian Aerospace Company (PT Dirgantara Indonesia), July 2009

July 11, 2009

Source: antara, wikipedia, antara,, etc.

A Brief Introduction of PT Dirgantara Indonesia

Indonesian Aerospace (IAe) (Indonesian: PT. Dirgantara Indonesia (DI)) is an Indonesian aerospace company in Asia with core competence in aircraft design, development and manufacturing of civilian and military regional commuter aircraft. The company was formerly known as Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN) or Industri Pesawat Terbang Nurtanio (IPTN).

Established in 1976 as a state owned company, it has developed its capability as aircraft manufacturer and diversified its product not only in the field of aircraft but also other area such as Telecommunication, Automotive, Maritime, Information Technology, Oil & Gas, Control & Automation, Military, Simulation Technology, Industrial Turbine, and Engineering Services.

DI until now has produced aircraft such as CN-235-220 as many as 250 units, NC 212-200 102 units, Super Puma helicopter NAS 332 19 units, NBELL 412 helicopter 31 units and NBO 105 helicopter as many as 122 units.

Meanwhile, current activities are manufacturing one CN-235 MPA for South Korea (delivery in 2010), one NC 212-400 EADS-CASA licensed that ordered by PT Airfast (2010), one N19 prototype that designed by DI (2013) and one amphibious aircraft under Donier Seawings’s license (2013).


1. Fixed wing aircraft
Some Fixed-wing aircraft Aircraft made by IAe:
* CN-235 Civil, Military, and Maritime Version (Joint Development with CASA).
* NC 212, a licensed production of CASA C.212 Aviocar aircraft.
* N 250 A prototype commercial turboprop aircraft, discontinued due to Asian financial crisis, the first prototype flew 55 minutes on August 10, 1995.
* N 2130 Planned commercial jet aircraft, discontinued due to Asian financial crisis before making prototype.







2. Rotary wing aircraft
Some Helicopter Aircraft made by IAe:
* NAS 330J, a licensed production of Aérospatiale Puma helicopter.
* NAS 332, a licensed production of Eurocopter Super Puma helicopter.
* NBell 412,a licensed production of Bell 412 helicopter.
* NBO 105,a licensed production of Bölkow BO 105 helicopter.




3. Aircraft component
Some subcontracts had been received by IAe:
* Component of Airbus A330.
* Component of Airbus A340.
* Wing Component of Airbus A380.
* Component of Boeing 737.
* Component of Boeing 757.
* Component of Boeing 767.
* Component of F-16 Fighting Falcon.
* Component of Fokker F100.

4. Armaments
* FFAR 2.75 inch rocket under Belgium’s license.
* SUT-Torpedo, under Germany’s license.
* NDL-40 Ground-to-Ground Rocket Multi Launcher.


The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-turbo-prop aircraft developed jointly between CASA in Spain and IPTN in Indonesia (now PT Dirgantara Indonesia) as a regional airliner and military transport. Amongst its military roles are maritime patrol, surveillance and troop transport. The largest user is Turkey which has a total of 61 aircraft (with most production were done in their home company). The project was a joint venture between CASA and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, which formed Airtech company to manage the program. Responsibility for design and production was shared at 50% between the two companies. The partnership applied only to the Series 10 and Series 100/110, with later versions being developed independently.





Design began in January 1980 with first flight on 11 November 1983. Spanish and Indonesian certification was on 20 June 1986; the first flight of the production aircraft was on 19 August 1986 and FAA type approval was granted on 3 December 1986. The aircraft entered service on 1 March 1988. Over 230 of all versions of CN-235 are in service and have accumulated more than 500,000 flight hours. It is the best aircraft in the world in its class.

One of the variant of CN-235 is for maritime surveillance purposes. The CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft has been developed in two versions with different avionics systems: the CN-235MP Persuader developed in Spain by CASA EADS and the CN-235MPA developed in Indonesia by DI. The maritime patrol variant is in service with: Spain, Ireland and Turkey (manufactured by EADS CASA) and Indonesia, Brunei and UAE (manufactured by DI).

The aircraft has design of conventional semi-monocoque design and mainly aluminum alloy construction. Composite materials, Kevlar and glass fiber have been used extensively in the construction of the wing and tail leading and trailing edges, engine nacelles and the nose radome.

The two manufacturers, CASA EADS in Spain and DI in Indonesia, supply the aircraft with different mission systems. The Spanish developed CN-235 MP Persuader is fitted with the Northrop Grumman APS-504 (V) 5 radar. The Indonesian developed CN-235 MPA is equipped with the Seaspray 4000 from BAE Systems, the AN/APS-134 from Raytheon or the Ocean Master 100 from Thales.

Joint Development on Jet Fighter Production with South Korea

Through Indonesian Defense Office, Ambassador of Republic of South Korea to Republic of Indonesia incorporating with last visit of South Korea President to Indonesia on March 6, 2009 ago, stated again that as growing tight relationship between both countries, Korea invites Indonesia for co-production of jet fighter that started with determining the road map of this cooperation. For this offer, Defense Office of Indonesia must first coordinate with Bapennas (National Planning Body), Finance Ministry, Defense Office and Indonesian Armed Forces Headquarter Office for that plan. Current information up to now, the joint study has come to stage of visibility study in July 2009. After that, there will be design phase for 3 years and followed with development phase for 7 years. “If smooth, in 2020 the co-production between both countries can create 5 prototypes”, said Defense Minister of Indonesia during a meeting with South Korean Ambassador on July 9, 2009.

CN-235 Anti Submarine Version

PT Dirgantara Indonesia (DI) will develop CN-235 for Anti-Submarine version as the newest version form that turboprop aircraft.

“The technology and expertise have been possessed by DI. We have long experience to assemble and modify that type of aircraft”, said Aircraft Integration Director of DI, Budi Wuraskito in Bandung, Saturday, July 11, 2009. Particularly for antisubmarine version modification plan, so far around 40 staffs of DI involved in manufacturing and modification anti submarine aircraft in Turkey. This type of aircraft is equipped with armament like missile to destroy submarine ship.

“They came back from Turkey four months ago to finish anti submarine aircraft making, so the technology has been acquired”, said Budi.

Some countries has expressed their interest and want to buy CN-235 anti submarine version, one of them is Malaysia that expressed by Malaysian Defense office during their Defense Minister visit to Indonesia two weeks ago. Malaysia now has 8 units of CN-235 with two of them are VIP carriers and the remaining are military transporter. Malaysia has interest to buy more other 6 (six) CN-235 with anti submarine capability which equipped with torpedo. And with US$ 45 M/unit, the commercial deal should be realized since the technology is not a problem for DI. Malaysia is one of several countries that operating CN-235 from Indonesia besides South Korea, UAE, and any other countries.

Surface and Underwater Target (SUT) Torpedo

The SUT (Surface and Underwater Target) torpedo is the latest and most versatile member of the Seal, Seeschlange and SST 4 family of torpedoes of Germany product. It is a dual-purpose wire-guided torpedo for engaging both surface and submarine targets. The SUT can be launched from submarines and surface vessels, from fixed locations or mobile shore stations. Its electrical propulsion permits variable speed in accordance with tactical requirements, silent running and wakelessness. The wire guidance gives immunity to interference with a two-way datalink between vessel and torpedo. The acoustic homing head has long acquisition ranges and a wide search sector for active and passive operation. After termination of guidance wire, SUT continues operation as a highly intelligent homing torpedo, with internal guidance programs for target search, target loss and so on. The large payload with combined fuse systems ensures the optimum effect of explosive power. The SUT operates at great depths as well as in very shallow waters. Consort operation permits exploitation of the full over-the-horizon range of the SUT. The body is made of plastic or aluminum. SUT at present exists in three different versions with slight differences in the internal guidance programs and the extent of data transferred via the guidance wire. The latest version is SUT Mod 2 with its special feature of additional data from the homing head being signaled back to the vessel including an “Audio Channel”.

Specification: 6,150 mm long (6,620 mm with guidance wire casket), diameter: 533 mm, weight: 1,420 kg (without casket), warhead: 260 kg, speed: selectable, max 35 knots, range: 28 km at 23 knots or 12 km at 35 knots, fuse: magnetic proximity and impact.

In service and in production for several navies (NATO – Greece; South America – Chile, Colombia, Ecuador; Asia – India, Indonesia, South Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan). In the early 1980s Indonesia signed a contract for indigenous manufacture of the SUT within a long-term program that still running.

torpedo sut i ok



20% Increase for Indonesian Defense Budget in 2010

July 11, 2009

Source: Kompas, antara

President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said that government will increase defense budget 20% more than 2009 budget for 2010 fiscal year. This statement was released by president at delivery ceremony of 40 Pindad pansers in Bandung from PT Pindad to TN-AD, Friday, July 10, 2009.

rapat terbatas

“Started in 2010, our defense budget will increase significantly by adding Rp 7 T (US$ 700 M) from Rp 33.6 T (US$ 3.4 B) in 2009 to be Rp 40.6 T (US$ 4.1 B) for 2010,” said President.

He added,” Budget increase in 2010 will be a beginning of further defense budget increase year by year so that we close enough to minimum essential force that requires Rp 100-120 T (US$ 10-12 B), inline with Indonesian’s economy growth and wealth”.

President said that Indonesian government can not provide defense budget sufficiently in several years ago until this year because government still prioritizing on people/public prosperity. An increase in defense budget significantly must be benefited effectively, still pay attention to the priority, employ proper audit and prioritize the user’s need.

President said,” Defense is an expensive sector, so Indonesian armed forces must have strategic plan, blue print and clear road map every 5-year so that TNI posture can increase much better than now. Every country must have mismatch between the strategic objectives with defense capabilities and on other hand is available budget. That’s why we must talk a priority plan then”. A plan must be supported is using Indonesian indigenous product for main armament and only import it if there is no the required product inside the country. It has been done like 6 x 6 pansers that made by Pindad that supposed to save money Rp 1.5 T (US$ 150 M) compared if TNI buys pansers from VAB with relatively having same quality but with only half price of it.

2nd Delivery of Pindad Panser, July 2009

July 11, 2009

Source:,, Pikiran Rakyat,, antara.

After some cancellations, finally President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) witnessed and inaugurated 40 Pindad panser delivery ceremony in Bandung, on Friday, July 10, 2009. At this time, Pindad over handed Anoa pansers to TNI-AD through Defense Office. This was a second delivery from Pindad after 20 pansers at first delivery and will be followed more 40 pansers until the end of this year as informed by Pindad CEO, Adik Alvianto.

panser 2

panser 1

panser 3

panser 4

panser 5

panser 6

panser 7

panser 8

panser 9

panser 9a

Manufacturing 6 x 6 Anoa Panser by Pindad for total 154 units is a realization Rp 1.26 T (US$ 120M) contract between Pindad and Defense Ministry. This contract scheduled will be targeted to be finished its delivery in 2010, with 100 units in 2009 and remaining 54 units will be delivered in 2010 that consists of 50 regular 6 x 6 Anoa pansers and 4 units with 4 x 4 configuration for recon unit. The specs of these pansers are use Renault engine, 6 m long x 2.5 m wide x 2.5-2.9 high, 11 – 14 tonnes weight, monocoque armored w/ STANAG 4569 level 3, 12.7 machine gun and 40 mm automatic grenade launcher as main armament, power 320 HP and speed 90 km/h, electronic component such as radio and anti jamming. Mostly, all components have been produced by local factories, such as steel by cooperation with Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) and PT Krakatau Steel (KS), electronics parts from PT LEN and now researching with Texmaco (Indonesian local private machine & truck manufacturer) for gearbox and engines for future plan.

At this time, former 4-star general, SBY took a ride on 6 x 6 Pindad panser for 1 km pass from CN-235 hangar to Management Center Building of PT Dirgantara Indonesia (DI). This delivery ceremony was held in DI instead of in Pindad’s yard was because there was no sufficient plenty room in Pindad to deal with 40 pansers line up during ceremony.

This indigenous project by Pindad is an evidence that Indonesian industries have reached the advanced industry standard, especially for military specification. Hopefully, for next development, Pindad and with other Indonesian counterparts and most importantly with government’s support (budget availability related) can create other creative products such as canon multi-wheeled vehicle, armored tracked vehicle and amphibious carrier with high worldwide standard as national pride and independence in Indonesian main armament system.

Indonesian Rocket Institute Successfully Launched RX-420 Rocket This Morning into Space (July 02, 2009)

July 2, 2009

Indonesian home grown RX-420 rocket launching test has been done successfully into space by LAPAN or Lembaga Antariksa dan Penerbangan Nasional (English: National Institute of Aeronautics and Space)  in Southern Region of Garut Regency, West Java Province (toward Indian Ocean)  this morning, July 02, 2009. This experiment not only for scientific purposes but also for military purpose. Future mission, Defense Ministry will exploit this test result to be local guided missile for missile defense system as an alternative ground defense force. In this occasion, there were three launching rockets, one RX-420 released by Dr. Adi Sadewo (LAPAN’s chairman) and two RX-100 by BPPT (Badan Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi) – Center For Research and Development’s chairman and the last by a representative official of PT Dirgantara Indonesia DI-Indonessian Aerospace Company) under tight security control.


Indonesian Defense Minister, Juwono Sudarsono said that Defense Office is still calculating the cost comparison between guided missile development cost and main armament supplying cost, such as air fighter and combat ship.

Previously, Science and Technology Minister, Kusmayanto Kadiman said that this morning test launched the biggest rocket so far by Indonesian and used the greatest amount of propellant (solid) fuel. He added, cruise distance of RX-420 rocket may reach up to 100 kilometers and its speed was 4 times of sound speed (mach) so this experiment also to test the rocket to move from subsonic to supersonic speed with temperature may up to 1,200 deg C. Most of material were originated from Indonesia, including the solid fuel. This also to avoid the protest and embargo from any other countries.

LAPAN’s spokesperson, Elly Kuntjahyowati said that this test is a part of LAPAN’s ambition to launch their micro satellite in 2014 with Indonesian local SLV. RX-420 as booster rocket and combined with RX-320 are designed to have cruise range about 3,600 kms.

RX-420 rocket fabrication took three months only (with only US$ 30,000 cost), with specification as follows: 420 mm diameter, 1,000 kgs launching load, 6,200 mm long, fuel solid, 13 secs combustion time, 205 secs departure time, 4,5 mach maximum speed, 101 kms predicted cruise distance range, 53 kms predicted vertical distance and with load: diagnostic tool, GPS, altimeter, gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, processor and battery. Meanwhile for RX-100 specs as follows: 110 mm diameter, 30 kgs launching load, 1900 mm long, fuel solid, 2,5 secs combustion time, 70 secs cruise time, 1,7 mach maximum speed, 11 kms predicted cruise distance range, 7 kms predicted vertical distance and with load: diagnostic tool, GPS, altimeter, gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, processor and battery.

Video that covered the launching period by national local TV

From the video seen that the first rocket launch (RX-420) at the end of its travel path was twisted from its straight trajectory. It was suspected due to its loosen/cracked fin while traveling in supersonic velocity. However, from this experiment, LAPAN’s objective was achieved to know the rocket condition and performance within the first 10 secs (golden data). Considering this was also the first trial for bigger rocket diameter launch and new play in supersonic condition (stress and temperature related that resulted from more than 4 machs speed) for LAPAN, the experiment result was considered successful.

Note: That’s why the experiment must be performed to compare with the theory and simulation. Other countries that developing long range ballistic missile have done the experiments many times with much larger budget.

For next development, LAPAN with Pindad are going to develop explosive payload for missile development and LAPAN with PT LEN (Lembaga Elektronika Nasional, National Electronics Institute, a strategic state owned company for electronics products) for guided sensor system development. If succeeded, those rocket to be guided missile may reach Singapore from Batam or similar range along the Indonesian border.

This launching news has attracted some foreign news agencies in their website, such as The Straits Times Singapore, The Sydney Morning Herald (Australia), Chinese People’s Daily Online,, AFP and so on.

Note: Citing from, nations in Asia are currently in the middle of a regional space race: the Indians are getting ready to build their own crew capsule for putting astronauts in space, China has sent a space probe to the moon, Japan has also done it, and later this year China is going to have their first space walk from their own space craft. So there is a lot of activity going on and it’s all to do with national prestige, and technology and economic development.

Source:,,, youtube,

Indonesian Troops Contribution to Peacekeeping Mission under UNIFIL-UN in Lebanon

July 2, 2009

The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, or UNIFIL, was created by the Unites Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 on March 19, 1978m to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security, and help the Government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area. The first UNIFIL troops were deployed in the area on March 23, 1978.

After 2006 war between Israeli and Lebanese, UNIFIL is currently deployed in Southern Lebanon (south of the Litani River) and primarily along the United Nations-drawn Blue Line, which is the border between Israel and Lebanon. This is the most high risk region in current UNIFIL Peacekeeping mission whereby the Indonesian Contingent located and ordered.

Unifil Deployment Map-2009

2009 UNIFIL deployment map

The force’s activities have centered around monitoring military activity between Hezbollah and the Israeli Defense Forces with the aim of reducing tensions and allaying tension along the border. UNIFIL has also played an important role in clearing landmines, assisting displaced persons and providing humanitarian assistance to civilians in the underdeveloped region of Southern Lebanon.

As of April 30, 2008, UNIFIL employs 12,341 military personnel, supported by some 307 international civilian and 606 local civilian staff and it is headed by Italian Force Commander Major-General Claudio Graziano.

Indonesian contingent has received 12 VAB (Véhicule de l’Avant Blindé) on February 17 2007, as the part of the second wave of shipment from the agreement between the French and Indonesian governments. Amongst the equipments sent with the second wave of VABs are 10 tool boxes (pioneering equipment), 10 armored vehicle radio communications unit, HMG (Heavy Machine Gun) shooter shield, and 40 water jerrycans.

Total Indonesian troops is 850 men in mechanized infantry battalion, 75 men in military police unit, 200 men in force protection company, 11 men UNIFIL staff, 111 men aboard KRI Diponegoro (Sigma class corvette).

Below are the activities performed by Indonesian Contingent:

1. Kopassus’s 48th anniversary by Force Headquarters Support Unit (FHQSU) Task Force – TNI Garuda XXVI-A Unifil contingent, Friday (4/17/2009) in Sudirman Camp Naqoura-Lebanon.


Kopassus anniversary ceremony in Lebanon 01


Kopassus anniversary ceremony in Lebanon 02

2. United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (Unifil)’s 31st anniversary, 3/21/2009, ceremony commandant was Maj. Budhi Arifa Chaniago (alumnus of Indonesian Air Force Academy-TNI AU, class 1994). This ceremony was led by Maj. Gen. Claudio Graziano.


UNIFIL ceremony 01


UNIFIL ceremony 02


UNIFIL ceremony 03

3. Naqoura (7/5) – During his visit, Under UN Sec. Gen. for Peacekeeping Mission – Mr. Alain Le Roy with Force Commander UNIFIL – Maj. Gen. Claudio Graziano inaugurated the utility of UNIFIL HQ New Extension Camp on Wednesday, May 6, 2009. UNIFIL HQ New Extension Camp is a extension from UNIFIL HQ Camp that includes Sudirman Camp as Force Headquaters Support Unit (FHQSU) base of Indonesian Garuda XXVI-A contingent, Movement Control (Movcon) with 10 helipads, and other facilities that still on construction. Indonesia Force Protection Company (Indo FC Coy) is responsible for security UNIFIL HQ New Extension Camp with 150 personnel and led by Lieu. Col. Mar. Imam Sopingi (Indonesia Navy Academy, class 1988), consisted of 1 commando team, 4 escort teams and 1 headquarter team. Indo FC Coy’s job is to guard Gaz Station Gate as the only gate into UNIFIL HQ New Extension Camp, conduct security patrol using armored vehicle (Panser VAB Renault), walking patrol outside and inside UNIFIL HQ New Extension Camp, guard 7 (seven) spots of Observation Post (OP), conduct Stand By Force, Crowd and Riot Control (CRC) and Quick Reaction Team (QRT).  All tasks are coordinated by Indonesian Force Protection Centre (FPC) that also supervise Italian FP Coy.

new camp

New camp

4. (June 20, 2009). Indonesian contingent XXIII-C/UNIFIL has received a brevet from Spanish contingent as an honor for their cooperative and good work that result in safe, condusive environment and zero accident rate during Brig. Gen Asarta Cuevas’s command. Those brevets pinned by Lieu. Col. Raden Haryono to his personnel after he directly got it from Brig. Gen. Cuevas previously.


Spanish brevet for Indonesian Contingent 01


Spanish brevet for Indonesian Contingent 02


Spanish brevet for Indonesian Contingent 03

5. Indonesian Armed Forces Contingent representatives for Unifil in Lebanon joined the shooting competition among the Unifil contingents that organized by Indian Contingent in East Sector shooting range. (June 25-26, 2009). This competition followed by 19 teams from 12 countries, i.e. South Korea, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Spain, Italy, Poland, France, El Savador, China, Ghana and Nepal, that consisted of two categories: assault rifle and pistol.

A. Riffle

1st Rokbatt Team (South Korea) with score 210 from total 300.
2nd Indonesian FHQSU Team (Force Head Quarter Support Unit /Konga XXVI-A) with score 209 from total 300.
3rd Indonesian SEMPU team (Sector East Military Police Unit / Konga XXV-A) with score 204 from total 300.

2nd Copl. Tasimin from Indonesian Indobatt (Konga XXIII-C) from SEMPU Team got the best shoter with score 114 of total 150 from three positions, 100 meters with 30 bullets.

B. Pistol
1st Indonesian Indobatt Team (Konga XXIII-C) with score 278.
2nd Rokbatt Team (South Korea) with score 268.
3rd Indbatt Team (India) with score 256 from total 300.

Private M. Eka Adhi Sumanegara from Indobatt got best shooter with score 142 of total 150, from 15 m distance with 5 bullets and 25 m distance with 10 bullets in standing position.

From recapitulation of riffle and pistol scores, Rokbatt Team (South Korea) got the best overall with score 478 followed by Indobatt Team (Indonesia) with score 463 and Indo FHQSU (Indonesia) got the third place with score 460 from total 600.

In trophy and medal presentation ceremony in India Contingent’s base (Indbatt UN POSN 4-2), Unifil East Sector Commander, Brig. Gen. Prieto Martinez from Spain said that a shooting/marksmanship competency is the basic skill required by all armed forces personnel, one shot one army. He also congratulated for all the winner teams and all participating contingents so the competition could be done well in high sportive environment, even the Spanish Team had not achieved to be the best team and only got 7th place at that time.


Shooting competition 01


Shooting competition 02


Shooting competition 03


Shooting competition 04


Shooting competition 05

5. Indonesian troops patrol with armored vehicles


VAB 01


VAB 02


VAB 03


BTR 01

btr80athierrylachapelle 02

BTR 02


LAPAN is Planning to Launch RX-420 Rocket on July 02, 2009

June 11, 2009

LAPAN is planning to launch rocket RX-420 for the first time on July 02, 2009. RX-420 is the milestone of the next Indonesian indigenous satellite orbital launching vehicle program.

That  special news was released by Research and Technology Minister Kusmayanto Kadiman, in Jakarta, Thursday, June 11, 2009. Minister in meeting session with Commission VII of Indonesian Parliament said that RX-420 launching with 100 kms distance will be conducted by LAPAN because they had already successfully launched experimental rocket RX-320 in 2008. He added that RX-420 basically has more power than RX-320 and may be boosted up to 190 kms if the rocket structure weight is lighter.

“Its cruise range equivalent to distance between Jakarta to Bandar Lampung”, said Kadiman. The rocket launching plan will be extended in the same year (2010) by launching combined RX-420-420 and in 2011 for combined RX-420-420 – 320 and SOB 420.

In 2014, all experimental rocket launchings should be finished and the rockets must be ready to carry nano satellite with height about 300 kms and speed 7.8 kms/sec. “If we make it happens, it will be monumental achievement as a very special gift from LAPAN to the country”, said Kadiman again.

Meanwhile, LAPAN Chairman, Adi Sadewo, also informed that LAPAN previously has done trial on two-stage rocket launching RX-150-120 supported by TNI-AD (Indonesian Army) and PT Pindad. Rocket with cruise distance 24 kms has successfully been launched from moving vehicle (Pindad Panser) on March 31, 2009 –> VERY GOOD NEWS!!!


LAPAN also has performed rocket launching trial of RX-D230 (RX-122) with cruise distance 14 kms that can be released from tube launcher on May 05, 2009. That rocket has main function to know the field condition prior to deploying marine soldier to the beach.

Another report gathered today, LAPAN also working with several institutions for flash arrester rocket project to protect important facility and working for artificial rain maker rocket project.

Taken from Kompas, Thursday, June 11, 2009 , kaskus

A Brief Note about Kopassus, Indonesian Army Special Forces

June 6, 2009

Pataka_Frame Kopassus


Kopassus, abbreviation for Komando Pasukan Khusus (Army Special Force Command) is an Indonesian Army Special Forces group that conducts special operations missions for the Indonesian government, such as direct action, unconventional warfare, sabotage, counter-terrorism and intelligence gathering. Kopassus was founded on April 16, 1952. The Special Forces quickly made their mark by spearheading some of the government’s military campaigns: putting down regional rebellions in the late 1950s, the Western New Guinea campaign in 1960, the confrontation against Malaysia from 1962-1966, the military acts against of alleged Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) in 1965, the East Timor military campaign in 1975, and the subsequent campaigns against separatism and terrorism.

Although most political and military analyst considering Kopassus was linked to numerous severe violations of human rights (especially in East Timor, Aceh and Papua, as well as on some occasions in the capital Jakarta itself), for most people of Indonesia, their last involvement of disgraced kidnaping activities of democratic activists in 1998 riots won’t erase their great and unpaidable services to the country from their very beginning formation until now.


Indonesia is the country that formed and declared the independence proclamation from former colonialists in 1945 after long struggle against of colonialism by several European countries like Portuguese, Spanish, Britain, Dutch and Japanese. Indonesia is a state that encompasses the Indonesia archipelago with some area were infamous for their spicy/clove product, the important commodity for European countries due to its rare and purpose for seasoning the food and medicine at that time.

Even the Indonesia had declared the independence, Dutch still did not accept that fact and came back to re-conquer Indonesia and named their military acts as police acts. Due to intensive diplomatic works and military fights from young Indonesian army, Dutch finally accepted Indonesia as independent state in 1949, with West Papua still occupied by the Dutch until 1963. Connecting to 1949 recognition by Dutch, the reactions in the field was not always easy for the new Republic of Indonesia. One of them was insurgency from  some ex-Dutch formed army, KNIL (Koninklijk Nederland-Indisch Leger, The Dutch East Indies Army). Many KNIL members were from Eastern people from Sulawesi and Moluccas that generally had closer relationships with Dutch because their more privileges in economy, politics and education during the Dutch colonialism due to their faith, mixed blood and became closely similar habits. Knowing that the new formed Republic of Indonesia would reduce their status than they had before, the insurgency begun by some ex-KNIL members and eastern politician leaders. That ex-KNIL and eastern politician leaders rebel became serious threat to central government in Jakarta with the movement called RMS (Republik Maluku Selatan; Republic of the South Moluccas).

During the eradicating of the RMS immunity, Lieu. Col. Slamet Riyadi and Colonel Alexander Evert Kawilarang who in the front line commanding the troops were inspired and amazed by effectiveness and combat ability (especially in men’s sniping) of ex-KNIL members that also helped by KST (Korps Speciale Troepen) during insurgency. They then inspired to build a similar force for Indonesia. However, at that time, neither of the Indonesian commandants had any experience or skill in special operations. (However, Lieutenant Colonel Slamet Riyadi would not see his dream realized due to his death in a battle against the troops of the RMS).

Not long after, with the use of military intelligence, Colonel Kawilarang located and met with Captain Major Rokus Bernardus Visser – a former member of the Dutch Special Forces who had remained in independent Indonesia, settled in West Java, married an Indonesian woman, and was known locally as Mohamad Idjon Djanbi. He was the first recruit for the Indonesian special forces, as well as its first commandant. He later re-positioned to become Major after his request to be at least one rank higher than any his trainee. Due to him, the unit adopted a Red Beret similar to that of the Dutch Special Forces, which is still in use by the present Kopassus.

Ambon 1950

Col. A. E. Kawilarang, Lieu. Col. Slamet Riyadi and staffs arrived in Ambon, 1950

Brig. Gen Slamet Riyadi Col. A.E. Kawilarang 1_4d06e516bb4d542b35ae28b87fabfb6b

Brig. Gen. Slamet Riyadi & Col. Kawilarang & Maj. M. Idjon Djanbi


Kopassanda’s ex-trainer


1. DI/TII (Darul Islam/Tentara Islam Indonesia)

2. The Talang Betutu Operation against the rebellion in Tentara Teritorium (Territorial Troops) IV

3. Destroying operation PRRI/Permesta

4. Kahar Muzakkar Rebellion

5. The Trikora Operation (to invade Netherland New Guinea in 1962)

6. The Dwikora Operation/Konfrontasi (to oppose the formation of the Federation of Malaysia from Britain)

7. The Naga Operation (to guarantee a 100% yes vote for integration with Indonesia by the Papuans in the so-called Act of Free Choice or Pepera in 1969)

8. The Seroja Operation in East Timor since in 1975

9. The Aceh Operation against of GAM (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or Aceh Liberation Movement)

10. Woyla Operation, Bangkok 1981

Indonesia Flight 206 was a domestic Garuda Indonesia Airways flight that was hijacked on Saturday, March 28, 1981.

This was the first serious Indonesian airline hijacking, since an earlier case in 1972 which was a desperate amateur hijacker (his name was Hermawan, who was failed entered the marine corps) and was then hijacked Vickers Viscount 613 flight number MZ-171 of Merpati Nusantara Airlines headed to Jakarta from Surabaya and killed at that episode by the pilot himself (Captain Hindiarto). Note: that pilot graduated from TALOA (Trans Ocean Airlines Oakland Airport Academy of Aeronautic, Bakersfield, California, USA) and believed he was familiar how to use the gun. Finally, captain Hindiarto could finish the hijacking incident after he waved his arm out of cockpit window and gave a code to one police officer whom surrounded the airplane that understood the given code to give his revolver Colt .38 from underneath the cockpit.

In 1981, some group of people hijacked the DC-9 “Woyla” Garuda Airways with 48 passengers, en routed from Palembang (South Sumatera Province Capital) to Medan (North Sumatera Capital), and ordered the pilot to fly the plane to Colombo, Sri lanka. The plane started to be hijacked at 10.10 a.m. after the pilot Captain Herman Rante threatened with gun.

But since the plane did not have enough fuel, it refueled in Penang, Malaysia. After Malaysian authority provided food and maps and hijackers released one passenger at 16.05 local time, the plane took off from Bayan Lepas Airport, Penang, Malaysia. In fact, Malaysian government initiative to easily let the DC-9 plane flew from Penang to Thailand was deplorably for Indonesian government. If hijackers insisted to fly farther, it would be more very-very difficult to do military option. Even more, if that plan could reach the Arabian countries,the situation would be the worst situation (there was a speculation that the plane would fly to Libya). Fortunately, they then flew to Don Muang International Port, Thailand and landed at 17.05 local time. The plane then parked at spot A terminal, Royal Thai Air Force base.

While that problem sounded to Jakarta, most senior officers of Indonesian Armed Forces (at that time still named ABRI, Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia) was gathering a senior officer meeting in Ambon, Moluccas. There was only Admiral TNI Sudomo, deputy commandant of the armed forces (ABRI), who still stayed in Jakarta. The news regarding that situation was received by Sudomo and then passed to Lieu. Gen. TNI Moerdani (assistant of defense and security and chief of strategic intelligence center) in Ambon. Then Gen. TNI M. Yusuf, the ABRI commandant, ordered Admiral Sudomo to coordinate eradicating of the hijacking. Immediately, From Ambon, Moerdani went back to Jakarta to prepare the work.

After considering the potential available officers, ABRI then ordered Lieu. Col. Sintong Pandjaitan, a Kopassandha (a former name of Kopassus) officer from Bataknese ethnic group from Northern Sumatera province,  who recently injured his legs from advanced freefall training with MTT (Mobile Training Team) from US Army’s Special Forces. While Sintong received the order, he was using crutch to support his legs after two weeks bed rest in army hospital.  He was assistant 2 or Operation in group 2 of Kopassandha. Shortly, he prepared anti terror squad. (The order given to Sintong was reasonable because he had enough long study on an anti terror course for 20 years after he attended some anti terror trainings such as in Hereford with SAS,visited anti terror training in KCT, Roosendal- Dutch, then France, Germany and Korea). At the beginning, he made team from 72 soldiers from Group 4/Sandiyudha, however after they knew the hijacker consisted of only 5 persons, finally Sintong shrunk the team to be only 30 commandos. They consisted of 24 from group 4, three officers from Kopassandha headquarter office and three from Group 1/Para commando. A strong policy from government was very clear, Republic of Indonesia insisted to rescue the hostages at any cost.





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Lieu. Gen. Yoga Sugomo, flew to Bangkok from Jakarta with five crews (pilots and technicians) as reversed crew, acted as RI’s special envoys to meet with Thailand government regarding this situation. Meanwhile, after Moerdani arrived in Jakarta, he with Sudomo met President Suharto at 22.00. When Suharto asked Let. Gen. Moerdani about the probability of success, Moerdany vastly responded, ” fifty-fifty, Sir”. However, Suharto still insisted to order the operation had to go on. In contrast, in Bangkok, Thai’s Prime Minister Gen. Prem Tinsulanonda would not let go any forces against the hijacking. This potentially came from his impression of the successful handling by Israeli Embassy in 1972 against of Israeli Embassy hostage without such force.

As time went by, information from the field becoming clearer, hijacking action conducted by some people who named themself as Komando Jihad (Islam Fundamentalist). Hijackers demanded the release of 80 Komando Jihad members imprisoned in Indonesia, and US$1.5 million, as well as a plan to take those prisoners to an unspecified destination. The hijackers threatened to blow up the plane if their demands were not met by 01.00 pm on March 30, 1981.








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To react to this situation promptly, Sintaong and team trained on a spare DC-9 provided by state airline Garuda Indonesia Airways. The team made a tactic with  started doing an identification of plane design. It was very important part of the rescuing tactic.The second step is how to approach the plane. They defined approaching the plane from dead sight angle of view that benefited commandos. The third was synchronization plan. During this exercise, Sintong evaluated application of assault plan,  either individual performance or coordination among the team members.  Unpredictedly, Lieu. Gen. Moerdani visited the exercise.

On Sunday, March 30, 1981, anti terror commando team gathered in General Moerdani’s office to get briefing. There were some body armors on the sofa that would be worn by team member, then he took the pistol and shot the armor to show the effectiveness of those body armors.

There was a remarkable happening prior to the departure of the team in Jakarta while the team met again with Lieu. Gen Moerdani in Halim Perdanakusuma Air force base, Jakarta. After the general saw the team used assault riffle M16A1, Moerdani said to Sintong, “Tong, you must not use that riffle! If you shoot using M16, you gonna blow the plane later on”. The Moerdani gave assault riffle H&K MP5 SD-2, caliber 9mm, made by Heckler & Koch, West Germany. Sintong had shot already MP5 while he was visiting GSG-9 training center, but he realized that no one of his team member had never used it. Moreover as per procedure, every a new weapon must be tested and evaluated prior to its service. Therefore after receiving that weapon, he spontaneously reacted, ” Ouw Sir, this weapon can not be used by team member”. Moerdany replied,” If you get used to hold a weapon, any weapon wanna be the same, right? Open the safety lock, position the gun to the object and fire it, what else?” Sintong still reluctantly accepted that order, although he had to do it as his subordinate. Then he spared the weapon with 9 mm low velocity bullets to his team member. Property of that bullet is deathfull for human yet only create small damaged to airplane wall.



Indonesia Terror Drill

Indonesia Terror Drill

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Time has shown 20.00 in the night when McDonnel Douglass DC-10-30 of Garuda preparing the departure to Bangkok. Prior to entering the plane, Sintong plead to Moerdani once again,” Sir, I request you to do shooting practice just a moment to know the riffle characteristic”. (This request was based on his experience when he used new assault riffle AR-15 caliber 5.56 mm that fail to fire just received the weapon, during communist eradicating action in Central Jawa, Indonesia).  Because the departure had to race with time, Moerdani commented,” Are you afraid?” Followed with anger voice, he then ordered,” Enter the plane!” The plane was then ready for take off and warmed the engines. In the airplane Sintong walked to Moerdani’s seat to meet his general, however, Lieu. Gen. Moerdani then asked him first,” How?” Sintong replied,” I wanna succeed this operation successfully, Sir. If you wanna me to depart, for sure I will”. Lieu. Gen. Leonardus Benny Moerdani didn’t comment on Sintong’s request. But not long after that, the general woke up from his seat and then went to cockpit and suddenly the engines were faded away. Lieu. Gen. Leonardus Benny Moerdani, a Christian Javanese soldier; a die hard and well known as fearless soldier (also commando veteran), yelled to Sintong,”  Hi Batak (yelled to Sintong’s ethnic as illustration their intimate relationship; can not be done if there is no good relationship cause will result in blasphemy)! Quickly go out of this plane, bring along your soldiers!”. Then Sintong and his commandos quickly did shooting practice with their new weapon and the result was all the firings were jammed! Knowing that happening, Moerdany was very surprise, because those weapons were new and becoming standard assault riffle of Germany GSG-9 anti terror team while rescuing Lufthansa Airline in Mogadishu, Somalia. It then believed that potentially the problem came due to inappropriate storage in high humidity of tropical region like Indonesia or the bullets given to the team had been expired. Then Moerdani ordered Lieu. Col. Kuntara to take other bullets from his office that newly sent from Germany. After they used the new bullets, the results were very good. From this experience, Sintong proved himself that he must take a risk to ask for request that sometimes would be difficult, moreover dealing with fearless and famous General Moerdani.

… at 21.50 Jakarta Time, 30 commandos by DC-10 airplane without wearing their uniform departed to Bangkok after 2 days intensive training in Garuda’s hangar. They arrived in Dong Muang Airport at 02.25 local time, March 30, 1981. All commandos still seated in airplane, meanwhile Lieu. Gen. Moerdani left the plane immediately. In Don Muang, that DC-10 was assigned as tactical commando center of Kopassanda team.

Initially, Thai’s official proposed to do joint operation between Indonesian commando and Thai commando. That proposal was refused by Indonesian officials because the hijacked plane was Indonesian plane, most passengers were Indonesian citizens and the hijackers were also Indonesian. Analyzing from military perspective, if joint military operation without joint training is performed, it will very likely be dangerous for all team members. (For example, rescuing operation of 50 hostages inside DC-8 Egyptair in Larnaca International Airport, Cyprus, in February 1978 had resulted in 15 Egyptian commandos were death after they exchanged fires with Cyprus officers. That accident happened due to no coordination, yet no joint training previously). The coordination with Thai Armed Forces was managed by high level officers, such as some body armors lent by them and ladder for approaching the aircraft body. Knowing the body armors already sufficient in number, the only one body armor from CIA office in Bangkok immediately was sent back by Moerdani to them to purge the assumption that Indonesia got help from USA.

(Note: to save the Thai Armed Forces’s honor, they also let to be participated in indirect operation as a protection force in hijacked plane’s perimeter).

On March 30, 1981, again the team practiced using DC-9 “Digul” of Garuda Indonesia Airways in Royal Thai Air Force hangar. That practice by simulating night assault was a repetitive drill about the technical job, especially about how to open the door and attack faster and effective. While negotiating and preparing the assault, there was a new occurrence that one hostage, an English passenger namely Robert Wainwright, had successfully escaped from the emergency exit door. It case changed slightly the assault scenario. In the attack plan, sub team recon 2 had a task to enter the plan thru emergency exit above left wing. Sintong ordered,” Once the door opened, anyone there must be shot quickly”. One of the team member asked,” What about if that person is a passenger, Sir?” Sintong answered firmly,” I don’t care. If that person is passenger, you have no choice instead of shooting him. It’s his fate already. I take the responsibility”. In Sintong’s logic, after one hostage escaped from airplane wing, it very likely in surrounding the emergency seat row was emptied by hijackers.

In shooting skill, definitely anti terror team member had much better skill than any hijackers, they were skillful commandos. In contrast, hijackers were fearless and drastic people, cause they were ready to die for their action. In Sintong calculation, their fearless attribute had also a weakness. If there is something noisy sound, any hijacker member must likely raise his head higher than any passenger as any normal people will duck into inside the seat row when shooting action happened. So, Sintong ordered his team member to fire their weapon level to the passenger seat height. “If seen people raise their head from the head rest, you must shoot him!”, ordered by Sintong with also instructed to give order to any passenger to crouch once commando enter the plane.

Finally, after negotiation with Thai’s government, Thai’s PM Prem Tinsulanonda gave green light to let the military option that will be performed by Indonesian. Because this operation was considered as open operation type, so all commandos changed their suit to their pride BDU and their red beret. Some experienced team member said,” If I must die, I choose to die by wearing this commando BDU”. Moreover, that uniform will be easily distinguished with any other people inside the hijacked plane.

In the last briefing before assault on March 30, 1981, at 22.00 (night), Moerdany reminded the team not to take risk too heavily and prioritized their safety first. But soon after that three-star general left the room, Sintong gave different order than Moerdani did before. Sintong affirmed,” If this mission is merely to kill the hijackers, we can bom this plane!. Finish. However, our mission here is to save the hostages, air crew and the airplane. Sintong accentuated, all team member’s safety must not be counted. We come here to save hostages. Hostages’s life are much valuable than your life, than my life, because this has been our fate as soldier!” All words by Sintong in fact had heard directly by Moerdani as he still there outside, not far from  the briefing room.

Meanwhile the hijackers becoming impatient, another Indonesian general, Lieu. Gen Yoga Sugomo was still trying to pay out the time by pretending their pressures were being processed.  The last decision was taken that assault would be conducted at 03.00 (morning), March 31, 1981. Sintong knew that all team members were exhausted. To help little within the constraint time, he told his team that the mission was canceled and he let them to take a rest and switched off the room lamp. No long after that, all member had slept, even some of them snored heavily. After around one hour, Sintong woke them up in fresher condition and ordered to prepare for the operation.

Information from a CIA-provided listening device prompted Lieu Gen. Moerdani to order the assault at 03.00 in the morning when the hijackers were tired and had eaten. At 02.00, all lights around the hijacked plane were shutdown, and assault time was decided by Moerdani. In 500 meters distance, the commandos approached using VW combi. Knowing there were so many journalists, most team members instructed to lie down inside the car and Moerdani sat on their soldier’s body. However, Sintong was very surprise when the commandos left the car, Moerdany moved and followed into the soldier’s march. It was not including in the scenario. Moerdany’s body was very clear in the middle of the uniformed commandos. He wore a black jacket and his hand held his pistol. That general looked very different because he was the only one not used the BDU and the red beret. Sintong whispered to his next commando,” So, Roso (it was commando’s name), get him out. Don’t let Mr. Moerdany go with us!” Capt. Roso replied by whispering also to Sintong,” I don’t dare, Sir”. In Benny Moerdany’s interview, he told that he just thought that his best place was with his soldiers. Off course neglected the reality, that he was three-star general. He did not care of the risk of getting the hot fatal bullet. But Moerdany insisted in his private doctrine, a leader must together with his soldiers. A something that he had proved so far along his services in any battle fields. He thought at that time, psychological value was very great, “If  I were shot and die, it would prove that Indonesian government never surrendered from any hijacker pressures”, told Benny Moerdani.The, Sintong told that they then walked to airplane calmly without pointed the gun and unlike the commandos who would rescue the hostages. One reporter from Bangkok Post described the march of Indonesian commando like Sunday picnic walk (and it was agreed by Sintong after all).

Assault sub team was assigned to enter the plane, support and sniper sub team were assigned to surround the plane in 30 meters radius and prepared to support the main sub team. In the same time, Royal Thai Air Force armies stood by in 200 meters radius to be ready for any possible situation.

Even though the action was planned to be at 03.00, but at 02.40 Sintong whispered his sub team commandants to begin the assault via handy talkie,” enter … enter!” Six soldiers by holding assault riffle H&K MP5 and Beretta M951 caliber 9 mm entered the plane as per their scenario.

At 02.45, two soldiers from support sub team stepped the ladder and opened the front left door. He kept the emergency sliding rubber that slowly emerged from its storage space. Before the front door fully opened, two commandos entered the plane swiftly by taking advantage of the raid and yelled,” Commando!!”. That had a purpose to send shock therapy to hijackers. For trained people, the raid like that will create astonishment about 2 or 3 seconds before reacting, but for the normal people they normally will react more than 10 seconds.  The first commando then ambushed into cockpit followed by the second commando to protect his fellow by yelling to the hostages to seek protection from their last position. Several seconds later, one fire was heard and apparently a hijacker namely Abu Sofyan had shot the captain pilot Herman Rante that seating in the left seat. Abu Sofyan shot him using Colt .38 at his head, whereas the co-pilot Handy Juwantoro could jump thru his right emergency door and quickly protected by Capt. Untung Suroso whom stood by underneath the cockpit. Another hijacker who ran from cockpit to passenger cabin collided with the commando no. 1 (the first commando) then wrestling resulted in. The hijacker attempted to seize the gun from the soldier, but before the commando no. 2 started firing, the hijacker had expelled to outside the plane. He slipped on the sliding rubber and felt on the apron. He then shot by the commando that had been ready besides the plane. Then he was death and soon later his name was known as Abdullah Mulyono.

Heindrik Seisen, a Dutch passenger who also one of the hostages, described,” I woke up when I heard a lot of noise and what certainly looked like shooting (sic!). It seemed like in the time of two seconds the whole plane filled up with commandos. He added,” When the shooting started we ducked below the seats. I didn’t want to look. I was terrified”.

In seconds count later after commando no. 1 and 2 entered the plane, the second ambush was performed by two commandos through left emergency exit door. The first group still stood by and acted firmly in their order to shoot anybody whom positioned in emergency exit door. And it was happened, when one commando shot the somebody closed to that door. Sintong’s analysis was correct, that fallen person was hijacker, namely Wendy Mohammad Zein, the youngest hijacker.

There was also grenade throwing by hijacker, fortunately he did not do well because the pin was not correctly pulled out. One hostage namely Wawan Irawan told that hijacker whom threw the grenade was Zulfikar. Wawan added,” If that grenade successfully exploded, I have already been like chopped meat”. Zulfikar escaped through left emergency exit door that already opened by the second group. Escaping from that door, Zulfikar jumped from leading edge to apron without invitation and then got shot from assault riffle M16A1 from the support sub team underneath the plane.

A few seconds later, the third group entered the plane through hydraulics back door. Due to slow movement of that opening, one hijacker had been prepared for ambush. It resulted in the first commando who entered from the back door, namely Achmad Kirang, was then shot at his stomach just above his male vital organ that not covered by body armored. The second soldier followed the fallen commando also been shot at his chest/body armor and only created bruise damage. He then swiftly opened fire using H&K MP5 to hijacker and resulted in his falling nearby the stewardess whom besides him. The hijacker name was Mahrizal. After the six commandos entered the plane, a support sub team then approached the plane to help the recon sub team. In short time, a rescue team performed the medical evacuation for Achmad Kirang whom shot by hijacker and rescued him to preparation site. Sintong evaluated, Achmad Kirang got shot due to his movement was too fast and it was suspected due to Achmad Kirang movement, a very experienced commando, was very aggressive.

After all hijackers were demolished, all hostages then been ordered to line up and go out from the plane by raising their hand. Abu Sofyan, one of hijackers, attempted to diffuse in the line up. But unlucky for him, three rescued hostages told the commandos that he was one of the hijackers. Abu Sofyan then shot after he attempted to runaway and then he died on the apron.

In that operation, three hijackers were death outside the airplane and other two hijackers were heavily wounded inside the airplane cabin. First lieutenant dr. PL Tobing and his medical team could not save their life. Therefore, all five hijackers were death at that operation. In cleansing period inside the airplane, Lieu. Gen Moerdany quickly entered the airplane by holding his pistol although that action had not been finished. From inside the cockpit, Moerdani then pointed upward his thumb as the victory sign.

He then made a call to his comrade Lieu. Gen. Yoga Sugomo,” This is two zero six, could I speak to Yoga please?”

“Yes, Yoga here”.

“Mr. Yoga, this is Benny!”, yelled Benny Moerdani.

“Damned! Where you have been?”, Yoga Sugomo asked.

“Inside the plane”, Moerdani replied.

“Pls, don’t be kidding in this situation”, Sugomo said.

“Yes, I am inside the airplane, the mission is succeeded well”, informed by Moerdani.

After the raid was finished, Sintong ordered his commandos to do consolidation in front of Royal Thai Post Command, then they entered another parked DC-10 airplane of Garuda Airways. (Previously, Lieu. Gen Leonardus Benny Moerdani had ordered 17 coffins as predicted from that operation. Fortunately that prediction was missed because from the result, there were only five casualties onsite). At 05.00, all commandos team had been withdrawn from Bangkok to Jakarta in the same day. The only victims in that operation from the commandos and hostages were Achmad Kirang in King Bhumiphol Air Force Hospital, Bangkok, two days after the operation and captain pilot Herman Rante who died six days later.

After that successful operation, there were some coverages from several newspaper, mostly from ASEAN countries,  about the mission. The Asian Wall Street Journal published in their headline,” It isn’t that Indonesians don’t deserve the same credit and honor that Israel and the West German commandos earned for similar gallantry at Entebbe and Mogadishu. It is a pity because there is a broader point to be made”. They also added that the third world countries always been underestimated, not having such discipline and can not work efficiently. The also commented on the Indonesian soldiers performance,”  Well, it took a high order of soldiering to rescue a planeload of hostages without taking one innocent life. From hijack to the last gun shot, the entire operation lasted about 60 hours. It required a high degree of organization and planning. It also required courage, efficiency and discipline”.

One of anti terror team, TJP Purba, had been interviewed by The Bangkok Post and said,” Our principle is simple: silent, decisive and aggressive”.





kopassus close quarter combat drill


After all, from the evaluation, the team concluded that all victims were caused by hijackers, like Achmad Kirang that was shot by .38 inch bullet, not  from the weapon that held by any team member, neither from H&K MP5 nor 9 mm bullet from berreta pistol during the raid. Another evaluation of successful operation was the commandos did execution with very effective and fast action and it also had very high surprise attack value. It resulted in no chance of any hijackers member to explode their dynamites that might create total loss; people and airplane.

Profitable from the intensive training by exploiting the logic and persistence, the raid by Indonesian commando only took  three minutes, less than 3-1/2 minutes plan!

Finally, all remaining team members got promotion one rank higher after the mission, while Achmad Kirang got two ranks higher promotion posthumously. Besides that, all team members got star medal from the Indonesian government.

Since that operation, Sat 81 Gultor (counter-terrorist group within Kopassus; an elite within an elite group) was formed by the TNI-AD. Code 81 of that group name was inspired from the year of the Woyla mission was undertaken.

11. Mapnduman, West Papua

Mapnduma Hostage Rescue 8 January 1996. The mastermind for this case was the OPM (Papua Liberation Organization or Organisasi Papua Merdeka), led by Kelly Kwalik. He took a number of Western and Indonesian researchers in the Lorentz National Parc hostage. The OPM demanded that the Indonesian government would give independence to West Papua. At that time the Kopassus commander was Brigadier General Prabowo Subianto, an ex GSG 9 student, and son-in-law of President Suharto. For the safety of the hostages, Prabowo preferred a negotiation process rather than a military operation. Negotiations were first conducted by an American missionary and the bishop of Jayapura and then by the ICRC led by Henry Fournier, the ICRC head of mission for Indonesia. The negotiations broke down, and Prabowo had to resort to force. The mission involved 100 soldiers from Kopassus and 400 soldiers from the Navy, Kostrad, Kodam VIII Trikora, and Penerbad. The mission was a success. Two hostages, were killed by OPM guerillas. There were no casualties among other hostages and Kopassus and others army members. During this mission Prabowo also retrieved help from other countries, who sympathised with Indonesia, among other Singapore, which lent its UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) Mazlat Scout and Night Vision Goggles, and, possibly, Western mercenaries.

Credit to wikipedia, Ken Conboy’s book about Kopassus, Hendro Subroto for his book about Sintong Pandjaitan (a former Kopassus commandant),

To be continued …